Head and Spine Trauma

Head and Spine Trauma

Information Covered:

  1. Incidence
    1. Morbidity
    2. Mortality
  2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain and Spine
    1. Spine
      1. Spinous process
      2. Cervical
      3. Thoracic
      4. Lumbar
      5. Spinal Fluid
    2. Spinal Cord
    3. Brain
    4. Types of Skull Fractures
      1. Basal
      2. Compressed
      3. Open
      4. Linear
    5. Types of Brain injuries
      1. Concussion – temporary disruption to brain without injury due to closed trauma
      2. Contusion – bruise of brain matter, may be diffuse or localized to one area
      3. Cerebral laceration
      4. Space occupying lesions
        1. Epidural bleed – typically arterial with high emergent risk
        2. Subdural – typically venous, may be acute or chronic
      5. Penetrating wounds
  3. General Assessment Considerations for Brain Trauma Patients
    1. Airway and Ventilation
    2. Mechanism of Injury
    3. Spinal Immobilization
    4. Respiratory Status -- brain injuries can cause irregular breathing patterns due to injuries affecting the brain stem
    5. Complete a Neurological Exam
      1. Appearance and behavior
        1. Alert
        2. Responds to verbal stimuli
        3. Responds to painful stimuli
        4. Unresponsive
      2. Observe posture and motor behavior – appropriate movement
      3. Facial expression
      4. Speech and language
      5. Thoughts and perceptions
        1. Logical
        2. Ability to make decisions
      6. Memory and attention
        1. Assess orientation
          1. person
          2. place
          3. time
          4. purpose
        2. Knowledge of recent events
      7. Pupils
      8. Vital signs
        1. Blood pressure
        2. Pulse rate – may be slower than normal if severe head injury
    6. Management Considerations With Brain Trauma
    7. Transport Considerations
    8. Refer to Brain Injury Foundation Guidelines
  4. Age-Related Variations for Pediatric and Geriatric Assessment and Management of Brain Injury
    1. Pediatric
    2. Geriatric
  5. Spinal Cord Injuries
    1. Types of Associated Spinal Injuries
    2. General Assessment Considerations in Spinal Trauma
      1. Often present with other injuries
      2. Neurological examination considerations
      3. History for patient with suspected spinal trauma
    3. General Management Considerations With Spinal Trauma
  6. Age-Related Variations for Pediatric and Geriatric Assessment and Management of Spinal Injury
    1. Pediatric

 

Content Creator: James Stone

CAPCE Course Number: 17-EMTP-F3-2104

Total CE Hours: 1

Level: Basic

EMT-CE uses the NEMSES guidelines as the foundation for every course outline.