Emergency Medications & Administration

Emergency Medications & Administration

Information Covered:

  1. Medication Safety
  2. Medication Legislation
    1. Pure Food and Drug Act
    2. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
    3. Harrison Narcotic Act
    4. Controlled Substances Act
      1. Schedule I
      2. Schedule II
      3. Schedule III
      4. Schedule IV
      5. Schedule V
    5. Drug Enforcement Agency
    6. Development of Pharmaceuticals
      1. Food and Drug Administration approval process
      2. Special Considerations
        1. Pregnancy
        2. Pediatrics
        3. Geriatrics
  3. Naming
    1. Chemical
    2. Generic
    3. Propriety/Trade
    4. Official
    5. Authoritative sources of drug information
      1. United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
      2. Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)
      3. Drug Package Inserts
      4. Drug Handbooks
      5. AMA Drug Evaluation
      6. Hospital Formulary (HF)
  4. Classifications
    1. Body System
    2. Class of Agent
    3. Mechanism of Action
      1. Alkalinizing Agents
      2. Analgesics
      3. Antibiotics
      4. Anticonvulsant – Sedative
      5. Antihypertensives
      6. Beta – Agonists
      7. Beta-blockers
      8. Calcium Channel Blockers
      9. Corticosteriods
      10. Diuretics
      11. Dysrrhythmics
      12. Fibrinolytics
      13. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
      14. Platelet Inhibitors
      15. Sympathomimetics
      16. Xanthines
    4. Classifications by Body System
      1. Central Nervous System
        1. Autonomic Pharmacology
          1. cholinergics
          2. anticholinergics
          3. adrenergics
          4. antiadrenergic
        2. Analgesics
        3. Anesthetics
        4. Paralytics
        5. Sedative/Hypnotic
        6. Anticonvulsants
        7. Stimulants
      2. Cardiovascular drugs
        1. Anti-dysrhythmia
        2. Cardiac Glycosides
        3. Antihypertensives
        4. Antianginal Drugs
        5. Antihyperlipidemia Drugs
        6. Antihistamine
      3. Drugs affecting the Blood
        1. Anticoagulants
        2. Fibrinolytics
        3. Antihemophilic Agents
        4. Platelet Inhibitors
        5. Glycoprotein IIB/IIIA Receptor Blockers
        6. Hemostatic Agents
        7. Antihyperlipidemic Agents
      4. Psychiatric Medications
        1. Neuroleptics
        2. Antidepressants
        3. Antimanic Drugs
      5. Respiratory System
        1. Mucolytics
        2. Cholinergic Antagonists
        3. Sympathomimetics
        4. Xanthine Derivatives
        5. Cough Suppressants
        6. Nasal Decongestants
        7. Antihistamines
      6. Endocrine System
        1. Drugs affecting the Pituitary Gland
          1. anterior pituitary hormones
          2. posterior pituitary hormones
        2. Drugs affecting the Thyroid Gland
        3. Drugs affecting the Adrenal Cortex
          1. glucocorticoids
          2. mineralcorticoids
          3. adrenal steroid inhibitors
        4. Drugs affecting the Pancreas
          1. insulin preparations
          2. oral hypoglycemic agents
          3. hyperglycemic agents
      7. Infectious Disease
        1. Anthelmintic Agents
        2. Antiparasitic Agents
        3. Antifungal Agents
        4. Antibiotics
        5. Antiviral
      8. Immune System
        1. Immunosuppressants
        2. Immunomodulators
      9. Gastrointestinal System
        1. Antacid
        2. Antiflatulents
        3. Digestants
        4. Antiemetics
        5. Emetic Agents
        6. H2 Receptor Antagonists
        7. Laxatives
        8. Antidiarrheals
        9. Cholesterol Synthesis
      10. Urinary System
        1. Diuretic Drugs
      11. Reproductive System
        1. Contraceptives
        2. Replacement Hormone Therapies
        3. Erectile Dysfunction
        4. Oxytocics
        5. Premature Labor Inhibitors
      12. Ophthalmic Drugs
        1. Antiglaucoma Agents
        2. Mydriatric Agents
        3. Antiinfective Agents
        4. Topical Anesthetic Agents
      13. Neoplastic Diseases
        1. Alkylating Agents
        2. Antimetabolites
        3. Plant Alkaloids
        4. Antitumor antibiotic
      14. Herbal Preparations
      15. Over the Counter Medications
  5. Schedules
    1. Controlled Substances Act
      1. Schedule I
      2. Schedule II
      3. Schedule III
      4. Schedule IV
      5. Schedule V
  6. Drug Storage and Security
    1. Factors affecting Drug Potency
      1. Temperature
      2. Light
      3. Moisture
      4. Shelf Life
    2. Controlled Substances
      1. Storage
      2. Accountability
  7. Phases of Medication Activity
  8. Medication Interactions
    1. Intestinal Absorption
    2. Competition for Plasma Protein Binding
    3. Biotransformation
    4. Drug Metabolism
    5. Renal Excretion
    6. Drug – Drug Interaction
  9. Toxicity
  10. Drug Terminology
    1. Antagonism
    2. Bolus
    3. Contraindications
    4. Cumulative Action
    5. Depressant
    6. Habituation
    7. Hypersensitivity
    8. Idiosyncrasy
    9. Indication
    10. Potentiation
    11. Refractory
    12. Side Effects
    13. Stimulant
    14. Synergism
    15. Therapeutic action
    16. Tolerance
    17. Untoward effect
  11. Sources of Drugs
    1. Inorganic
      1. Minerals
    2. Organic
      1. Extracts
      2. Alkaloids
    3. Chemical
    4. Genetic
    5. Drug Forms
      1. Liquids
      2. Solids
      3. Gases
  12. Pharmacological concepts
    1. Pharmacokinetics
      1. Absorption
        1. Solubility
        2. Bioavailability
        3. Mechanism of Absorption
          1. diffusion
          2. osmosis
          3. filtration
      2. Distribution
        1. Drug Reservoirs
          1. plasma protein binding
          2. tissue binding
        2. Barriers to Drug Distribution
          1. blood Brain Barrier
          2. placental Barrier
      3. Biotransformation
        1. First Pass Metabolism
        2. Active Metabolites
        3. Inactive Metabolites
      4. Metabolism and Excretion
        1. Organs of Elimination
          1. kidneys
          2. intestine
          3. lungs
          4. exocrine glands
            1. sweat
            2. salivary
            3. mammary
    2. Pharmacodynamics
      1. Mechanism of Action
        1. Drug Receptor Interaction
          1. agonists
          2. antagonists
          3. affinity
          4. efficacy
        2. Drug Enzyme Interaction
      2. Medication Response Relationship
        1. Plasma Levels
        2. Biologic Half – life
        3. Therapeutic Threshold
        4. Therapeutic Index
        5. LD 50
        6. Factors Altering Drug Response
          1. age
          2. sex
          3. body mass index
          4. pathologic state
          5. genetic factors
          6. time of administration
          7. psychological factors
          8. predictable responses
            1. tolerance
            2. cross tolerance
          9. iatrogenic responses
          10. drug allergy
          11. anaphylactic reaction
          12. delayed reaction ("serum sickness")
          13. hypersensitivity
          14. idiosyncrasy
          15. cumulative effect
          16. drug dependence
          17. drug antagonism
          18. summation (addition or additive effect)
          19. synergism
          20. potentiation
          21. interference
          22. toxicity
  13. Routes of Administration
    1. Alimentary Tract
      1. Oral
      2. Sublingual
      3. Rectal
    2. Parenteral
      1. Topical
      2. Intradermal
      3. Subcutaneous
      4. Intramuscular
      5. Intravenous
        1. IV Bolus
        2. IV Piggyback
      6. Endotracheal
      7. Intraosseous
      8. Inhalational
      9. Intranasal
  14. Administration of Medication to a Patient
    1. The “Rights” of Drug Administration
      1. Right Patient -- Prescribed to Patient
      2. Right Medication -- Patient Condition
      3. Right Route -- Patient Condition
      4. Right Dose -- Prescribed to Patient
      5. Right Time -- Within Expiration Date
    2. Drug Dose Calculations
      1. System of weights and measures
        1. Metric System         a.          Drug calculations
        2. Desired dose
        3. Concentration on hand
        4. Volume on hand
      2. Calculate
        1. Volume-based bolus
        2. IV drip rate
        3. Weight-based IV bolus
        4. Weight-based IV drip
    3. Techniques of Medication Administration (Advantages, Disadvantages, Techniques)
      1. Peripheral Venous Cannulation
      2. Intraosseous
      3. Intramuscular (Manual)
      4. Subcutaneous (Manual)
      5. Aerosolized
      6. Nebulized
      7. Sublingual
      8. Intranasal
      9. Transtracheal
      10. Intravenous Push/Infusion
      11. Nasogastric
      12. Rectal
      13. Topical
      14. Accessing Implanted/Central Intravenous Port
    4. Reassessment
      1. Data -- Indications for Medication
      2. Action -- Medication Administered
      3. Response -- Effect of Medication
    5. Documentation
  15. Standardization of Drugs
    1. Techniques to assure purity and potency
    2. Generic Drugs
  16. Medication Classifications
    1. Phelebotomy
      1. Procedure
    2. Transfusion
      1. Indications
        1. Transfusion Reactions
        2. Hemolytic Reaction
        3. Fever Reaction

 

Content Creator: Joyce Lockwood

CAPCE Course Number: 17-EMTP-F3-9202

Total CE Hours: 1.5

Level: Advanced

EMT-CE uses the NEMSES guidelines as the foundation for every course outline.