Pediatric Growth and Development

Pediatric Growth and Development

Information Covered:

  1. Pediatric Anatomical Variations and Assessment
    1. Head compared to an adult’s
      1. Compared to the body, the head is proportionally larger in size
      2. The head contributes a larger portion of the body’s surface area than in adults
      3. Anterior and posterior fontanelles open
      4. Implications for the health care provider
    2. Airway compared to an adult’s
    3.          Chest and lungs compared to an adult’s
    4. Abdomen compared to an adult’s
    5.          Extremities compared to adult’s
    6.          Skin and body surface area compared to an adult’s
      1. Thinner with less subcutaneous fat
      2. Larger surface area to body mass
      3. Implications for the health care provider
    7. Respiratory system compared to an adult’s
      1. Tidal volume of breaths is smaller (10-15 mL/kg)
      2. Higher oxygen demand per kilogram of body weight (2 times that of an adult)
      3. Smaller lung oxygen reserves
      4. Implications for the health care provider
    8. Nervous system and spinal column compared to an adult’s
      1. Continually evolves throughout childhood allowing them to develop new abilities
      2. Brain tissue is more fragile and prone to bleeding from injury
      3. The subarachnoid space is relatively smaller offering less cushioning to the brain
      4. The brain requires nearly twice the cerebral blood flow as does an adult’s
      5. Brain and spinal cord are less well protected by a thinner skull and spinal column
      6. Spinal column
      7. Implications for the health care provider
  2. Metabolic differences compared to an adult
    1. Infants and children have limited glucose stores
    2. Infants and children are prone to hypothermia due to increased body surface area
    3. Newborns and infants less than 1 month are the most susceptible to hypothermia
    4. Implications for the health care provider
  3. Growth and Development
    1. Infancy
      1. birth-2 months
        1. Physical development
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
      2. 2-6 months
        1. Physical development
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
      3. 6-12 months
        1. Physical development
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
    2.           Toddler years
      1. 12-18 months
        1. Physical development
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
      2. 18-24 months
        1. Physical development
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
      3. Preschool years (2-5 years)
        1. Physical development
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
      4. Middle Childhood years (6-12 years)
        1. Physical development
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
      5. Adolescence (12-20 years)
        1. Physical development -- Puberty begins
        2. Cognitive development
        3. Emotional development
        4. Implications for the health care provider
  4. Pediatrics: Specific Pathophysiology, Assessment, and Management
    1. Respiratory Compromise
      1. Pathophysiology
      2. Assessment
      3. Upper airway obstruction
      4. Lower airway disease
      5. Pneumonia
      6. Foreign body lower airway obstruction
      7. Pertussis
      8. Cystic fibrosis
      9. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)
        1. Chronic lung disease that usually occurs in infants form born prematurely and treated with positive pressure ventilation and high oxygen concentrations
        2. Recurrent respiratory infections and exercise induced bronchospasm are complications
        3. Management

 

Content Creator: Joyce Lockwood

CAPCE Course Number: 17-EMTP-F3-6301

Total CE Hours: 1

Level: Basic

EMT-CE uses the NEMSES guidelines as the foundation for every course outline.