Infectious Disease


  • Describe drug-resistant infections
  • State how the transmission of the influenza virus (flu) occurs
  • Investigate the role of the EMS provider in disease reporting
  • Compare an epidemic to a pandemic
  • Assess the differences between sepsis and septic shock


I. Anti-microbial resistance

       a. Microbes resist the effects of medications/treatments

              i. Germs are not killed; growth is not stopped

       b. Difficult to treat

       c. Anyone is susceptible; some must be more cautious, such as those with:

              i. Weakened immune systems

              ii. Open skin wounds

              iii. Recent surgery

              iv. Invasive procedures (PICC lines, IVs, in-dwelling catheters, etc.)

       d. Occurrence

              i. World-wide

              ii. Ongoing battles within institutions (hospitals, clinics, etc.)

       e. Common antibiotic resistant infections

              i. MRSA

              ii. VRE

              iii. VRSA

              iv. TB

              v. Clostridium difficile (C-Diff)

III. Influenza (flu)

       a. 15CDC Information and Statistics:

              i. The combination of influenza and pneumonia is currently the eighth leading cause of death in the U.S.

              ii. More people die from it than from kidney disease or suicide

       b. Influenza viruses

              i. Spread from person to person via

                     1. Large-particle respiratory droplet transmission

                            a. Requires close contact between source and recipient persons

                     2. Contact with respiratory-droplet contaminated surfaces

                     3. Airborne transmission by small-particle residue of evaporated droplets

              ii. Typical incubation period is 1-4 days (average: 2 days)

              iii. Contagiousness begins the day before symptoms start and lasts 5-10 days

              iv. Children may be contagious several days before becoming symptomatic, lasting ten or more days after onset

              v. Severely immunocompromised persons can shed virus for weeks or months

              vi. Influenza vaccines

                     1. 60% effective (varies with vaccine and flu strain)

Content Creator: Maddy Browning
CAPCE Course Number: 21-EMTP-F3-1312
NJ Course Number: 145916
Total CE Hours: 1
Level: Basic
EMT-CE uses the NEMSES guidelines as the foundation for every course outline.