Infectious Disease

LESSON OBJECTIVES

• _Describe drug-resistant infections

• _State how the transmission of the influenza virus (flu) occurs

• _Investigate the role of the EMS provider in disease reporting

• _Compare an epidemic to a pandemic

• _Assess the differences between sepsis and septic shock

LESSON CONTENT

I. Anti-microbial resistance

a. Microbes resist the effects of medications/treatments

i. Germs are not killed; growth is not stopped

b. Difficult to treat

c. Anyone is susceptible; some must be more cautious, such as those with:

i. Weakened immune systems

ii. Open skin wounds

iii. Recent surgery

iv. Invasive procedures (PICC lines, IVs, in-dwelling catheters, etc.)

d. Occurrence

i. World-wide

ii. Ongoing battles within institutions (hospitals, clinics, etc.)

e. Common antibiotic resistant infections

i. MRSA

ii. VRE

iii. VRSA

iv. TB

v. Clostridium difficile (C-Diff)

II. Influenza (flu)

a. 15CDC Information and Statistics:

i. The combination of influenza and pneumonia is currently the eighth leading

cause of death in the U.S.

ii. More people die from it than from kidney disease or suicide

b. Influenza viruses

i. Spread from person to person via

1. Large-particle respiratory droplet transmission

a. Requires close contact between source and recipient persons

2. Contact with respiratory-droplet contaminated surfaces

3. Airborne transmission by small-particle residue of evaporated droplets

ii. Typical incubation period is 1-4 days (average: 2 days)

iii. Contagiousness begins the day before symptoms start and lasts 5-10 days

iv. Children may be contagious several days before becoming symptomatic,

lasting ten or more days after onset

v. Severely immunocompromised persons can shed virus for weeks or months

vi. Influenza vaccines

1. 60% effective (varies with vaccine and flu strain)

 

Content Creator: Carli Wymore

CAPCE Course Number: 18-EMTP-F3-1312

Total CE Hours: 0.5

Level: Basic

EMT-CE uses the NEMSES guidelines as the foundation for every course outline.