Information Covered:

  1. Normal and Abnormal Changes associated with aging
    1. Normal changes associated with aging primarily occur due to deterioration of organ systems;
    2. Pathological changes in the elderly are sometimes difficult to discern from normal aging changes.
    3. Cardiovascular
    4. Respiratory
    5. Neurovascular
    6. Gastrointestinal
    7. Genitourinary
    8. Endocrine
    9. Musculoskeletal
    10. Integumentary
  2. Sensory changes
    1. Vision
    2. Hearing
    3. Pain Perception
  3. Pharmacokinetic change
    1. Physiological changes that impact pharmokinetics
    2. Implications of altered pharmacokinetics
    3. Difficulty in compliance ofdrug therapy
  4. Polypharmacy
    1. Multiple chronic diseases mean multiple medications
    2. Drug dosages may not have been adjusted for multiple meds
    3. Drug interactions may cause problems
    4. Consider polypharmacy as a reason for problems
  5. Psychosocial and economic aspects
  6. Specific conditions that occur more frequently in the elderly
    1. Myocardial infarction
    2. Congestive Heart Failure
    3. Aortic Dissection
    4. Syncope
    5. Hypertension
    6. Pneumonia
    7. Pulmonary Embolism
    8. Asthma
    9. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis
    10. Stroke.
    11. Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA)
    12. Alzheimer’s Disease
    13. Dementia
      1. Definition
      2. Causes of dementia
      3. Associated signs and symptoms
      4. Problems associated with managementof patientwith dementia
    14. Delirium
    15. GI Gastrointestinal bleeding- is caused by disease processes, inflammation, infection and obstruction of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.
      1. Treatment:
      2. Assessment tools
      3. Treatment:
    16. Biliarydisease is disorders of the liver and gallbladder.
    17. Chronic Renal Failure- is the inability of the kidneys to excrete waste, concentrate urine, or control electrolyte balance in the body.
    18. Urinary Tract Infection
    19. Endocrine
      1. Diabetes Mellitus- an inability of the pancreas to produce a sufficient amount of insulin causing hyperglycemia.
      2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis-is a diabetic complication of IDDM that occurs when the patient become hyperglycemic. This causes the cells to burn fat, which causes the body to create ketones and ketoacids.
      3. Nonketotic Hyperglycemic-Hyperosmolar Coma –is a diabetic complication of NIDDM in the elderly. Unlike DKA the resulting high blood glucose levels do not cause ketosis, but rather lead to osmotic diuresis, and shift of fluid to the intravascular space, resulting in dehydration.
      4. Hypothyroidism-is destruction of the thyroid tissue over time that causes an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone in the blood. Myxedema coma is a premorbid consequence of hypothyroidism in the elderly caused by a recent history of surgery, hypothermia, infection, hypoglycemia, and sedative use.
    20. Inflammatory arthritis
    21. Osteo-
  1. Immunological system anatomical and physiological changes, and pathophysiology
  1. Pressure Ulcers- is the decay of body tissue due to pressure on a site. This results in a lack of blood supply and oxygen to the tissues.
  2. Herpes Zoster- a highly contagious virus that is manifested by a painful rash that affects the ganglion of a nerve and appears along the affected nerve pathway.

Content Creator: James Stone
CAPCE Course Number: 20-EMTP-F3-1306
NJ Course Number: 141108
Total CE Hours: 2.0
Level: Basic
EMT-CE uses the NEMSES guidelines as the foundation for every course outline.